Dating base 4.

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Our results showed that the dating base 4 of 3 old individuals contained PCR amplifiable DNA, all of them being females at the genetic level, in agreement with the anthropological study. The nuclear and mtDNA marker analysis revealed their genetic kinship between each other and with individuals from other human old populations from Romania, dating from the Bronze and Iron Age. Rezultatele noastre au relevat prezenţa de ADN amplificabil prin PCR din dinţii a 3 dintre indivizii luaţi în studiu, toţi cei 3 fiind de sex feminin la 7 dating steaguri roșii genetic, în acord cu studiul antropologic.

Analiza markerilor de ADN nuclear si mitocondrial a relevat înrudirea geneticǎ dintre indivizii studiaţi, dar şi cu indivizi din alte populaţii umane vechi de pe teritoriul Romaniei, din Epoca Bronzului şi a Fierului. The study of ancient DNA extracted from human fossils has led to a better understanding of the human beings and the evolution of the human genome, as well as the spread of human populations throughout the Earth, confirming or infirming some anthropological data1.

Cattaneo, S. Dimartino, S. Scali, O. Craig, M. Grandi, R. Sokol, Determining the human origin of fragments of burnt bones: a comparative study of histological, immunological and DNA techniques, Forensic Science International, p.

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Gotherstrom, M. Collins, A. Angerbjorn and K. Methods, Strategies and Applications. Krings, A. Stone, W. Schmitz, H. Krainizki, M. Stoneking and S. Dacia, N. All eukaryotic cells have an external double layer-membrane, which encloses the cytoplasm with nucleus and several types of organelles e.

Nucleus and mitochondria contain the DNA molecules, which encode all the structural and functional traits of the cells and implicitly of the organisms. DNA is a macromolecule with a double helical structure, built up from four types of nucleotides, each of them containing a sugar, dating base 4 phosphate group making up the DNA backbone and a nucleobase.

The hydrogen bonds between the complementary nucleobases on the two strands stabilize the double helix structure of the DNA molecule2. The length of a double stranded DNA molecule is usually expressed in complementary base pairs bp.

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The mRNA3 molecules transport the genetic message to the cytoplasm, where it is translated into protein molecules during the translation process4. Each individual has its own genetic 2 The complementary nucleobases are A with T and C with G, and in this manner, they are normally pairing.

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Ancient DNA study on human fossils found in Costişa 57 information that determines the structure and functionality of its body and which is further transmitted to offsprings. The complete human genome has 3. The nuclear genome is organized into chromosomes, built from DNA and protecting proteins. Each human sexual cell possesses a haploid nuclear genome containing a complete set of genes of 23 chromosomes.

The sex chromosomes are XX in females and XY in males, the Y chromosome being essential for masculinity development8. During meiosis9, a genetic recombination process with reciprocal genetic material changing occurs between homologous chromosomes, resulting recombined haploid gametes.

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These haploid sexual cells each of them containing a random haploid set combination of chromosomes will fuse at the time of conception, resulting in the diploid zygote egg cellwhich will develop a new organism. Thus, each individual contains a particular, unique diploid set combination of chromosomes, except the monozygotic twins10, who are genetically identical Each individual possesses two variants call alleles of each gene one inherited from the mother and one from the father at a particular genetic locus on homologous chromosomes.

The two alleles can be identical in the case of homozygote individuals or different in the case of heterozygote individuals. This characterization of the alleles present at a genetic locus is called genotype Genes in the nucleus consist of exons13 and introns Different factors internal or external factors can produce a modification in the DNA sequence, named mutation.

There are several types of mutation, point mutations15, for instance, occur most frequently. The evolution forces keep only the favorable mutations in gene exons, which increase fitness of organisms, the deleterious mutations being excluded.

Mutations occurring in the uncoding part of DNA are accumulated during evolution, as long as they do not affect the survival capacity of the individuals.

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These DNA markers are also named microsatellites and consist of basic bp17 sequence repeated several times. Many of those DNA polymorphisms have several alleles18 in a population and a high heterozygosity rate, being valuable tools in forensic and population studies. As concerns the homologous sex chromosomes, the Y chromosome is always inherited from the father, while the mother can only transmit the X chromosome to her offsprings.

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Strachan and A. Soficaru The mtDNA19 genome is frequently used in population genetic research because of some particular traits, namely: 1 its presence in multiple copies per cell dating base 4, ; 2 it is only maternally inherited; 3 it does not undergo recombination and 4 its mutation rate is about 10 times faster than the average nuclear genes All members of one maternal lineage show the same dating base 4 — representing a haplotype and demonstrate the same features codified by the mt genome — this is a haplogroup.

If the paternal mtDNA enters into the egg cell, it is specifically excluded in the early few hours after conception All mt genes have no introns and the uncoding DNA spacers are few and short.

The longest uncoding mtDNA sequence is the D-loop or the control region CR which shows the highest sequence polymorphism of the whole mt genome by far. Human mitochondrial genome — schematic representation circular, covalent closed, double stranded DNA molecule.

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The base numbering system begins arbitrarily inside the control regions, at base pair no. Rokas, E. Laudoukakis, E. Zouros, Animal dating base 4 DNA recombination revisited. Tamura, M. Nei, Estimation of the number of nucleotide substitution in the control region of mitochondrial DNA in humans and chimpanzees, Mol Biol Evol 10,p. Richards et al. Anderson, A. Bankier, B. Barell, M. De Bruijn, A. Coulson, J. Drouin, I.

Eperon, D. Nierlich, B. Roe, F. Sanger, P. Schreier, A. Smith, R. Staden, I Young, Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrialgenome, Nature, p. Thomas, P. Gilbert, E. Willerslev, A. Hansen, I. Barnes, L. Rudbeck, N. Lynnerup and A. Ancient DNA study on human fossils found in Costişa 59 Due to the high levels of polymorphism, the HVRs are in general suitable for aDNA analysis without additional use of other mitochondrial or chromosomal markers; dating base 4 analysis of those mtDNA regions enables investigators to identify individuals to a family lineage level25 down to the maternal lineage.

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To study genetic information Dating base 4 inheritance down to the paternal lineage the Y chromosome is used as it is strictly paternally inherited Immediately after death, the degradation of DNA molecules is induced by some endogenous nucleases and continued by environmental conditions Moreover, some environmental factors such as high temperature and acidic pH act as diagenetic factors and dating base 4 up the DNA degradation process.

Several processes such as oxidation, hydrolization, and irradiation occur and destroy the DNA molecules over time. For instance, oxidative processes modify a number of cytosine and thymine rests to hydantoins, which inhibit DNA polymerases and PCR amplification of the DNA molecules. After a while, the accumulative effects of these degradative processes can lead to a dating base 4 degradation of all the DNA molecules from fossils. It has been assumed that in physiological concentrations of salt, neutral pH and 15 0C, all DNA molecules from fossils are degraded in approximatelyyears Here, we present a molecular genetic analysis on some skeletal remains of 6 old individuals found at Costişa, dating from the Bronze Age.

The human remains were preserved in graves at about 60 cm depth and archaeologists between and dug them up. The fossils were preserved at room temperature after exhumation. To prevent any contamination, sterile protective equipment, instruments and reagents were used. Solutions were commercially acquired when possible; otherwise, they were autoclaved dating base 4 UV-treated.

Ancient DNA study on human fossil found Costişa, Romania, dating from de Bronze Age

Prior to extraction, the surface of the teeth and bones were thoroughly washed with 5M HCl, rinsed with sterile distilled water and dried under a UV-lamp for min on each side to remove any previous contamination. Then, each human fossil remain was crushed and ground to a fine powder in a metal box with a heavy metal piece, both sterilized at C for at least 2 hours.

The bones and teeth powder was preserved at C. Paabo, The genetical archaeology of the human genome, Nat. Gray, G. Burger, B. To monitor any contamination during each extraction, an extraction blank, without biological sample, was processed together with each fossil piece. The invention of the PCR in the s opened real perspectives in aDNA study, allowing detecting and amplifying even one DNA molecule dating base 4 in a fossilised biological material. A typical PCR consists in cycles based on 3 stages, performed on 3 temperature steps, namely the DNA template denaturation at 0C, the primers annealing at variable temperature, usually between 55 0C- 70 0C, and the elongation step at C.

Theoretically, at the end of each cycle, the DNA amount is doubled. Cardoş, V. Stoian, N. Miriţoiu, A. Comşa, A. Kroll, A.

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